The summer 2017 conversion of the entire 501 Queen streetcar route to bus operation presents an opportunity to compare the behaviour of the two modes on this route.
Apologies to readers in advance for the length and number of charts, but that’s the nature of the subject.
Background and Data Sources
The raw data for this article comes from the TTC’s vehicle tracking system, CIS, for which much thanks, but the processing and interpretation are entirely my own. The machinery behind the digestion and presentation of TTC data is explained in Methodology for Analysis of TTC’s Vehicle Tracking Data.
In this article, there are data from two separate time periods:
- April 1-30, 2017: At this time, 501 Queen service consisted of two overlapping routes. 501 streetcars operated from Neville Loop to Roncesvalles, while 501L buses operated from Dufferin to Long Branch. A local shuttle, the 501M, provided service on Marine Drive in the Humber Bay area, but it is not part of this analysis.
- May 7-31, 2017: All service on the 501 operated with buses on two branches. 501L buses ran between Neville and Long Branch Loops, while 501P buses ran between Neville and Park Lawn Loops. Buses alternated between the two branches so that, in theory, there would be a 501P half way in between every 501L east of Windermere and The Queensway where the routes diverged.
Many readers will be familiar with charts on this showing the distribution of monthly headways (time between vehicles) and link times (time required to travel between two points). In addition to the detailed data, these charts include summaries of values by hour including averages and standard deviations. The latter values indicate the degree to which actual values differ from the average, and the higher the SD value, the worse the dispersion of individual values. This translates to “bunching” of vehicles which, in the worst case, sees buses running in pairs and trios.
For the purpose of this article, I have created charts pulling together the statistics for streetcar (April) and bus (May) operation. In the case of May, only data from the 7th onward when the route had been converted are included.
Are These Data “Typical” and “Representative”?
In the process of working through the data, I became concerned at the gap between bus and streetcar times. In order to verify whether the April 2017 streetcar values were typical, I also pulled the values for January through March and found that travel times were generally lower for streetcars, although there remain periods (notably evenings) when the bus times over the route are shorter than the streetcar times. However, the difference is not as great as the April 2017 streetcar data implies.
The chart below shows the travel time from Roncesvalles to Silver Birch by month from January to May. (Silver Birch is used as the origin rather than Neville Park because vehicle layovers at the end of the route sometimes occur west of that street, and measurements from that point could include layovers.) May data is bus only, and the other months are streetcar.
This chart shows clearly that April (blue) was an unusual month, and streetcar travel times are higher than for previous months. The May (green) data is for buses which are slightly faster in the evenings, but which lie in the same travel time range as streetcars for the months of 1Q17. The same data can also be shown as a percentage difference relative to the May (bus) data.
Where the values fall below the 0.00% line, the streetcars are faster. As we will see in the detailed charts for April and May below, the advantage varies over the route and by time of day.
The differences westbound are not as striking, but they are still an improvement over the April-to-May comparison.
The moral of the story here is that a data comparison may not be what it seems, and a few weeks’ data are not necessarily representative. For example, if the first part of September were used as a reference, this would be during the traffic mess downtown brought on by TIFF and especially the 504 King diversion. This would not be representative for either mode.
Similarly, the situation under poor weather may not produce the same comparison as under the generally fair weather experienced in May, the base month for the bus comparison here.
Comparison of Link Times April vs May 2017
The following two PDF files contain a set of charts showing the value of link times for various segments of the 501 Queen route.
By way of an introduction, here is one page.
The values shown here are for trips westbound between Silver Birch Ave and Woodbine in April (blue, streetcars) and May (green, buses) 2017. The time on the horizontal scale refers to the hour in which a trip begins (i.e. the point at which a vehicle crossed Silverbirch).
The chart shows that bus trips were slightly faster over this segment, although the degree varies through the day. The standard deviation values are quite close, and the values indicate that most of the travel times varied by only a minute either way from the average. The average is highest for the period beginning at 8:00 am, not unsurprising for an inbound trip in the AM peak.
The descriptions below should be read in conjunction with the sets of charts. Note that the vertical scale is not the same for all charts.
Westbound Travel Times
- Silver Birch to Coxwell: This chart combines the two route segments used in the analysis into one piece embracing all of The Beach. The gap between bus and streetcar sits at roughly a minute or less all day.
- Silver Birch to Yonge: This chart looks at the entire east end of the route. For most of the day, bus times run 4-5 minutes below streetcar times except during the 8:00 AM peak hour.
- Silver Birch to Roncesvalles: This chart reviews the entire route where comparative data exist (there was no streetcar service west of Roncesvalles in April). Buses run slightly faster than streetcars, although some of the improvement seen on the east end of the route is lost when the full width of the line is measured. It is no surprise that for westbound trips, the highest travel times come in the PM peak.
- Woodbine to Coxwell: This is a very short segment at the west end of The Beach where buses make marginally better time, although the values are more dispersed (higher SD values). The big spikes in SD values are probably due to layovers associated with crew changes.
- Coxwell to Greenwood: Again this is a very short segment, and some of the spikiness in the data is probably due to layovers for crew changes. Note that here and in the previous chart, the gap between the modes is about half a minute even though it looks wide because of the small maximum Y value on the chart.
- Coxwell to Parliament: This segment consolidates data for Riverdale and the east side of downtown. The boundary at Parliament is used because this was the eastern limit of a City of Toronto traffic study. As on other parts of the route, the running times are similar for the two modes in the 8:00 hour, with buses running faster at other times. Note that the SD values for bus trips are higher through the AM peak indicating greater variability for buses here.
- Greenwood to West of Broadview: In this segment, buses and streetcars run neck-and-neck through the day with buses getting some advantage in the evening. Again, buses show greater variability than streetcars, although the difference falls off in the evening.
- West of Broadview to Parliament: In this segment, there is a greater drop in bus times as the day goes on, and it is worth noting that the section from River to Parliament tends to have few stops.
- Between Parliament, Jarvis and Yonge (three charts): Buses and streetcars run close to each other over these segments during the daytime.
- Yonge to University: At this point, the relative performance of buses versus streetcars begins to change, particularly in peak hours when the buses are slower.
- Yonge to Bathurst: This takes in a wider slice of the west side of the core with buses and streetcars running close together.
- University to John: This is a short segment, although it can be quite congested. Streetcar and bus times are similar here.
- University to Dufferin: This takes in a long slice of Queen West with buses showing a small advantage, mainly in the evening.
- John to Spadina: This is another congested segment, and streetcars are only slightly slower than buses here.
- Spadina to Bathurst: As we move out of the core, buses pick up a bit of an edge (albeit a very small one).
- Bathurst to Ossington: This area has less congestion, and the buses are slightly quicker.
- Bathurst to Roncesvalles: This is a wider slice embracing all of Queen West. Buses and streetcars show comparable times over this wider section.
- Ossington to Dufferin: Buses are slightly faster in this section.
- Dufferin to Lansdowne: In this section, the stats are roughly even between the modes.
- Lansdowne to Roncesvalles: In this section, the streetcars show a big advantage, although some of the spikiness of the data can be attributed to layovers westbound at Roncesvalles for crew changes.
- Lake Shore/Humber to Long Branch: Data for both months on this segment are for buses which served this part of the route in April and May. It is worth noting that there is a difference in running times between the two months even with the same mode. This shows that care must be taken in making assumptions about small changes.
Overall, the areas where traffic is fairly free-flowing and periods when passenger service times are not too long show the buses coming out better than the streetcars. However, where the street is likely to be congested or when passenger demand is heavy, buses lose their advantage.
Another possible factor, and this from personal observation riding buses on Queen, is that bus operators are generally used to driving at faster speeds and will take advantage of whatever openings there might be in traffic. Streetcar operators are less aggressive, leaving aside issues such as being trapped behind left-turning vehicles. Depending on the degree of overall congestion, turns can also affect buses in locations where general congestion prevents vehicles of either type from advancing in any available lane.
I will return to a more detailed review at the level of individual days later in this article.
Eastbound Travel Times
The eastbound charts are arranged in the same order as the westbound ones (i.e. from east to west), but I will comment on them from west to east. To follow along, go to the last chart and then page backward.
- Long Branch to Lake Shore/Humber: As with the westbound data, there are small differences between April and May times for this section.
- Roncesvalles to Lansdowne: Streetcars have a definite advantage here in the morning, and it declines over the day.
- Roncesvalles to Bathurst: Over the longer segment from Roncesvalles to Bathurst, buses fare slightly better.
- Roncesvalles to Silver Birch: Over the full route, buses are faster, but the amount varies over the course of the day.
- Lansdowne to Dufferin: Buses and streetcars run at comparable speeds until the early evening.
- Dufferin to Ossington: Buses run about half a minute faster through this section which is comparatively uncongested, but also short.
- Dufferin to University: Buses better the streetcar times only in the early evening over this wider view of Queen West.
- Ossington to Bathurst: Times for this segment are roughly equal.
- Bathurst to Spadina: Streetcars have shorter times at mid-day when there is a lot of congestion here, and otherwise the modes are roughly the same.
- Bathurst to Yonge: The two modes are roughly the same with each being slightly faster/slower at different times of the day.
- Spadina to John: In this congested area, streetcars generally have the shorter times.
- John to University: The two modes run neck-and-neck here.
- University to Yonge: Buses are faster over this section in the PM peak.
- Yonge to Jarvis/Parliament: Over both of these sections, buses are slightly faster than streetcars during some periods, equal otherwise.
- Yonge to Silver Birch: For the east end of the route, buses run 2-4 minutes faster than streetcars except for the 17:00 hour of the PM peak.
- Segments east of Yonge tend to be uncongested, and as we saw for the westbound data, the buses tend to run a bit faster than the streetcars with the smallest difference coming in the PM peak.
- Greenwood to Coxwell: As on the westbound trips, times in this segment are affected by crew changes, and so the SD values bounce around more.
- Coxwell to Woodbine: Bus times in the evening here are unusually high. A more detailed review of the data is needed to determine why.
- The Beach: Bus times are very slightly better than streetcars.
Comparison of Headways
The scheduled level of service with buses is considerably better than with streetcars because buses are smaller, and the TTC puts more of them out when they replace service. It is not unusual for riders to “love” the bus replacements because the wait times, an important component in service attractiveness, are shorter.
Any plans to widen headways on streetcar routes needs to take this into account, and offset the effect by providing more reliable service with few gaps and bunches. However, the TTC appears to have abandoned this goal with the adoption of “standards” that are so lax even the most appallingly bad service can meet them.
The following charts are similar in format to the link time charts above, but with the difference that they give the headway at a point, not the travel time over a segment.
A few points are noteworthy here:
- For much of the route, the standard deviation of headways is roughly the same for streetcars and buses, but since the scheduled bus headway is shorter, this actually represents more badly-bunched service.
- As we move westward across the route, the bus SD values converge with the average headways indicating that by about Broadview, most buses are running in pairs. This situation continues all day long and into the evening. For streetcars, the SD values are in the same range, but they tend to stay at least a bit below the average implying that although unevenly spaced, the streetcars are not running nose-to-tail.
- Headways shown between Dufferin and Roncesvalles for April include the 501L shuttle buses, and so this is a mix of streetcar and bus service. (I have not filtered out the 501L service for these locations in April data.)
- From Royal York westward, only the 501L bus service is included. With SD values close or equal to the headway, this shows that even with only half of the service operating through to Long Branch, it tends to do so in packs of two buses.
- Eastbound from Long Branch (last page of the eastbound charts), the SD values are lower, at least through daytime hours when there is some supervision present to dispatch vehicles. The evening is quite another matter.
- As with the westbound data, the eastbound stats include buses for April on the 501L shuttle between Roncesvalles and Dufferin.
- From Ossington eastward, the bus SD values track closely to the average headways indicating that buses are running in pairs all the way across the city.
For the record, the TTC’s service standard for routes operating more frequently than every 10 minutes is that vehicles can be up to 50% above or below their scheduled time (i.e. for a scheduled 6 minute service, vehicles can arrive every 3 to 9 minutes) and up to 40% of all trips can be outside of this range. Although service on Queen is ragged, it generally meets the standard, especially thanks to the large blanket exemption for nearly half of the service.
The situation is likely compounded by the TTC’s tendency not to tightly manage replacement bus services because, after all, the route is under construction and disruptions are inevitable. This really does not hold water for May 2017 because most of the construction projects that will affect the route have not had much of an effect yet. (Track construction on Lake Shore, for example, consists of nothing more than two piles of rail, and no actual track reconstruction had started as of the beginning of June.)
A Note About Weekends
A preliminary review of weekend data shows that buses do not fare as well then especially on the congested western half of the route. Some of the streetcar data I have includes weekends when service was disrupted or diverted, and this must be filtered out before a proper comparison is possible.
Coming in Part II
In the interest of cutting off a long post, I am ending this installment here. A second section will review data at a greater level of detail to see the degree to which “averages” mask wider swings in travel times and headway reliability. Stay tuned!
CC to Councillor Michael Ford, et al at City Hall.
When King Street goes into the pilot study, it will be interesting to see whether a tram comes every 300 seconds (for example) consistently. If this is the case, there will be evidence to support a similar scheme on Queen Street. All great cities are defined by being people friendly. How many people will go to St. Mark’s Square in Venice if cars are everywhere? No one goes to Venice to drive their cars. People complain that the Bloor Street bike lane project would be a disaster. The shop owners seem to be on board with the bike lanes. So, people might actually like vehicle restrictions on King Street.
Steve, I think buses do not do well because of how people use it. When people see a low floor bus, all the strollers and shopping trolleys come out. Bus driver would need to lower the bus in those instances. It takes time and of course it misses the green light. I would imagine that the new tram cars would do better. Open the door, lift the stroller and trolleys up. Trams do not need to be lowered as they are already low floor.
Not only do the buses generate enormous amounts of fumes, the noise they create as they accelerate away from stops is intolerable.
Does ridership tend to drop during bustitution? I sometimes avoid a route with bus shuttles, out of uncertainty.
What effect on measurement?
Steve: An intriguing question. I think that a lot depends on just what the substitution looks like, and whether significant parts of a route are missed. With the bunching of buses we are seeing on Queen, more riders are going to get pissed off waiting or trying to board vehicles carrying wider-than-planned headways, and this could have an effect too. Another factor is the relatively good weather and drop in demand for some types of trips.
Many factors influence any comparison, and it is important not to make major decisions on an apples-to-oranges basis.
Wondering about your last point there.. Buses come more often than streetcars on a replacement basis, but is the actual carrying capacity equal in a given, lets say, hour? I’d think having to wait in a big crowd in rush-hour to only not fit onto the bus, versus having more space on the new streetcars, would impact things greatly. My point being, I suspect the effective trip time from stop A to stop B may take much longer even if the actual ride time is faster.
I could also just be totally wrong, whats your take?
Steve: In February, the AM peak streetcar service from Neville to Ronces was scheduled for ALRVs at 5’00” or 12 cars/hour. At a service design capacity of 108, that’s 1296 passengers/hour. However, as any Queen user knows, many runs were actually operated with CLRVs. If, say, 1/3 of the service ran with CLRVs at a design capacity of 74, then the service actually provided would be 8 ALRVs at 108, and 4 CLRVs at 74 for a total of 1160.
The current bus service is scheduled at 2’50” for vehicles with a design capacity of 51. That’s 21.18 buses per hour or about 1080. This is 20% lower than the scheduled ALRV service, or 7.5% below the level assuming 1/3 of the streetcars were actually CLRVs.
And so yes there is less service on the 501 leaving aside further problems that come from bunching.
Just a simple question but in the late evening hours is the run time limited by drivers being restricted to scheduled arrival time ie driving slow so as to not get ahead of schedule. Are the buses assigned a faster run time so the streetcars can not match the bus time? This could the cause of the relative bus speed in the second chart, Silver Birch to Roncesvalles.
Steve: Actually the buses have more time, but the drivers appear to ignore intermediate time points and aim to get to terminals as quickly as possible for a nice siesta. If this is actively allowed by TTC management while streetcars are forced to run more slowly, then this would be a definite bias against streetcars. I am trying to believe this is a problem the TTC simply does not understand as opposed to a deliberate campaign to undermine streetcar credibility.
Is it TTC policy for buses not to pass each other? I have been on several 501 buses traveling in caravans where trailing buses would not pass the one ahead of it even going as far as stopping in the centre lane at stops to wait for the other bus to merge back into traffic. This was particularly maddening when no passengers had requested a stop and there was nothing but green signals and open road ahead. Anyone sitting behind the bus couldn’t have been too pleased either.
Steve: Yes, buses are not allowed to leapfrog when they are on the same route. In locations with multiple routes or express/local branches, they do it all the time. This is another of the TTC’s simplistic decisions about transit operations that hampers service. The premise, as I understand it, is that the leapfrogging bus might be for a branch that waiting riders want. Fair comment, but when they’re all going to the same place, it makes little sense.
Surely we can do a computer simulation including passenger pickups at each stop point and traffic introductions and exits at each stop as well as automotive traffic at each stop point along the route. This has to cost less than torturing passengers to get the information need and spending a couple of million dollars and thousands of dollars on Professional analysis, drivers salaries, vehicle maintenance, depreciation fuel, supervisor time and goodwill from inconvenienced passengers. Only to discover that Buses hold about a third less people then buses despite the marginal benefit that increased maneuverability confers.
Steve: I would also suggest that the amount of work needed to build the simulation to reflect the many different conditions under which vehicles operate would be a big job in its own right. It would be easy to skew the study either way depending on the assumptions built into the model. After all, we justify multi-billion dollar subway projects the same way.
It is worth noting that in the development of regional demand models, one important step is to feed the model “old” conditions to see whether what it predicts matches what actually happened. The models are almost always wrong for initial iterations, and accuracy becomes more daunting as one gets down to more finely grained detail.
Back in the days when only the west end was bustituted, transit control would occasionally order a 501 bus to pause for five minutes after it had caught up with the bus ahead. This could happen anywhere along the route. This is, in my opinion, as a rider who got to sit on some of these buses, not the best way to maintain headways.
Streetcar operators, on aggregate, seem to run more conservatively than bus operators. Streetcars can move right along, for example on The Queensway, but few do (the slow orders at every intersection don’t help, of course). I am not sure if this is a simple matter that streetcars are unsafe to operate at higher speeds, or an ingrained culture in streetcar divisions, or transit control keeping a closer eye on streetcar operations.
In general, it doesn’t take much travel on the TTC to be able to tell if the operator (bus or streetcar) is in a big hurry, moving along, moseying, or lollygagging. As a rider, I enjoy the “big hurry” runs, but for safety’s sake the “moving along” are preferable. I’ve been on “lollygaging” buses, but particularly streetcars, where the speed rarely tops 20km/h and every stop is oh-so-gentle, with braking starting a hundred metres out.
One thing I have mentioned before is that the more frequent vehicle will have a speed advantage in an area of lightly-used stops, because there will be less need to stop at any given stop. As a concrete example, it’s pretty easy for a bus or streetcar to run non-stop on Lake Shore between Mimico Avenue and Royal York. But as soon as it’s carrying a gap, it typically has to stop at both of the intermediate stops, and possibly hit a red light. A two-minute (or less) run becomes five minutes. Anyway, over the length of the Queen route, and assuming the headways are actually adhered to, I would guess that a vehicle on a 2.5-minute headway would make at least six to ten fewer stops than a vehicle on a 5-minute headway. Given similar operating practices, the 2.5-minute vehicle would do the run in a few minutes less, maybe up to five minutes less.
Steve: Thanks for this intriguing, but oh so obvious when one considers it, observation.
Hi Steve. Your arguments and facts are great. But, it’s not a question of running time and schedule adherence or costs. Rather, its about transit versus the car.
Steve: Yes, definitely that’s the real, underlying political debate and, I suspect, still an issue for some within the TTC who would be happier just to run buses everywhere.
Maybe its time for us to re-convene the “Streetcars for Toronto” Committee? We opened a wonderful opportunity and legacy for Toronto back in 1972 to make Toronto, the TTC and public transit a showcase for the world which the City is squandering. Sadly, Toronto Council continues to fail to make the choice between cars and public transit trying, instead, to please both factions. Don’t kid yourself about the huge financial investments for public transit being bandied about – they’re not dealing with the core issues. As a result, Toronto is over-run with cars and, much like ants at a picnic, they are ruining the picnic! It is no longer convenient or enjoyable to either drive around the city or use transit. Council is slowly and painfully killing the city they claim they love and want to make “first class”.
The study proposed by the 1950s-thinking suburbanite councillor may, in fact, be a worthwhile first step to rectifying the transportation/transit problem facing Toronto provided its mandate and focus is broadened to look at all elements of movement in the city, not just the role and character of Queen Street but to include the other major city corridors like Dundas, Carlton/College, Bathurst, to understand that these corridors are the lifeblood of Toronto and exist to move people (and goods), not cars. The issue at hand isn’t just about buses versus streetcars (“buses are better because they pull to the curb and get around accidents or delays” – the internet is replete with US city ads from the 30s, 40s and 50s with exactly those messages and look where those cities ended up!). Thinking that replacing buses with streetcars would be a good idea (costs and logistics of buses aside) is folly. Buses are just a band-aid; not the answer. The “doctor” (aka the study and Council) needs to look at the patient as a whole, look in the mirror, and look at the root cause of the transportation issues afflicting this city and develop a new “transit city” plan to make Toronto attractive, easy to get around in, and environmentally responsible. In short, the city has to (as it did under Mayor Miller) make transit a priority over the car and stick to that view.
Senior Transit Consultant and
President, Canadian Transit Heritage Foundation
Steve: For the benefit of readers, Chris was a member of the Streetcars for Toronto Committee 45 years ago.
Chris is absolutely correct. Until Toronto politicians have the guts to commit to making Toronto a transit-first city, we’re going to get half measures that fail to fully address our mobility challenges. Mustn’t offend those voters who think they have a car-driving birth right, even though you love getting your picture snapped by the media at the ribbon cutting ceremonies for transit investments.
I’ve worked for far too many politicians of all stripes — including the ultra-lefties — who wanted me to make the case for improving or reviving their riding’s rail passenger service. But they also wanted highway expansion and increased or new air service. You can’t suck and blow at the same time, folks.
In December last, a clear though narrow majority of Council voted to ignore facts and suchlike when blowing the billions on transit infrastructure projects, and it was 23-19, a narrower vote i think, than a tiny bit of user-pay for the mobile furnaces aka cars. However, votorists are in all of our ridings, and while cars at times are very useful, they’re also well subsidized, with the costs buried through many budgets eg. health care, now about 50% of provincial spendings.
With the Queen, King, Gardiner, Lakeshore, GO all needing some relief, surely the point is to have a serious upgrade in the transit capacities, and the distance from the pinch point at the base of High Park to the core is about 6kms, and we did have a Queen St. subway idea that was approved by voters in merely 1949, but apparently the federal level didn’t commit. Hmm, maybe core voters should insist that real plans that have voter approval actually should have first dibs instead of suburban schemes that will also blight the operating budgets.
I don’t actually favour doing a subway in this obvious place right away however. We’ve gotten too sunk in schemings to support more politicized planning, and what makes sense is a bit of relief on-surface first, and that means a new, faster, semi-express route using the Front St. axis, which was also the route of the west end of the DRL. Sadly, we are building buildings in some of the most needed portions, since we don’t do transit in the core instead of roads.
And what about having a safe bike route parallel to this massive demand? Oh, sorry, the bike is the competition, and the TTC makes money from the core to support suburban services, and if it got to be safe/continuous, even more people would try biking in the core. Streetcar tracks are a set of hazards btw, known about for decades, despite official denials of hazard and thus liabilities, and we can’t simply repaint the lane lines for bike lanes/safety as might be done for Bloor and Danforth. Yes, there are parallel options of Richmond and Adelaide, which have been given quite good treatment of late, but they’re not so car-free, and to be very good, they need to go as far west as possible, ie. Dufferin (somehow).
Too bad we can’t have a good study of options, including making Queen/King one-way roads with a set of tweak options to see what might actually work. (The King RoW idea was deemed inferior to Front St. and other options in merely 1993, in the WWLRT EA btw).
Steve: I am sick of hearing about the Queen/King one-way pair that ignores (a) the fact that this would substantially increase walking distances to transit for riders, especially west of Bathurst where a direct path is interrupted in places by the rail corridor, and (b) Richmond/Adelaide do not exist as alternatives for any type of traffic between Bathurst and Roncesvalles. This is a complete non-starter.
As for the conspiracy theory that bikes are bad because they are “the competition”, please get a life. There is a good argument for better cycling infrastructure, but you do your position no good with this sort of nonsense. Cycling proposals are not automatically “good” just because they are for bikes any more than transit proposals are automatically good because they are for buses, streetcars and subways. Drawing a line on a map and claiming it will produce lots of added capacity and “relief” doesn’t make it so.
When analyzing the data did you take into consideration that the street parking prohibition hours eastbound through Leslieville and The Beach were increased to 3:30 to 6:30 from 4:00-6:00pm? This allows the commuter traffic and buses to just rip through neighbourhood!
Steve: I didn’t take it into account specifically because the speed comparisons are done on hourly slices all through the day for early May. I could go back to data from before the change in parking hours to look at the change, although obviously there is no bus data from that period.