On Sunday, July 27, 1997, the new 510 Spadina streetcar route replaced the venerable 77 Spadina bus. This conversion was over two decades in the making.
Back in 1973, fresh from the political victory of saving the streetcar system from its planned retirement in 1980 [when the Queen subway would open (!)], the Streetcars for Toronto Committee (SFTC) proposed that the Spadina route be converted back to streetcar operation.
The Spadina streetcar was abandoned in 1948 with the retirement of the small fleet of double-ended cars serving it (there were no loops, only crossovers at Bloor and south of King), although track between Harbord and Dundas remained in use until 1966 by the Harbord car.
It is intriguing to look back at the rationale we of the SFTC had for this conversion at the time:
- Provide the basis for future rapid transit needs between Metro Centre and the Bloor and Spadina subways.
- Provide more comfortable transit service now with increased interior vehicle space, elimination of lane changing, and reduction of vibration, noise and air pollution within vehicles.
- Provide a basis for comparing the light rapid transit mode of intermediate capacity rapid transit with a test “guideway” mode being constructed at the Canadian National Exhibition.
- Release needed buses for suburban service by replacing them with currently surplus streetcars.
We were rather optimistic, and hoped that service could be operating by 1974. Of course this assumed that a lot of the existing infrastructure would be recycled, the loop at Bloor would be on the surface, not underground.
At the time, there was a proposal for a large commercial development on the Railway Lands known as “Metro Centre”, although it never came to be in the form originally planned. The area is now full of condos (and the Dome), but they came much later.
As for “intermediate capacity rapid transit”, the guideway under construction at the CNE grounds never amounted to more than a few foundations for support pillars and the loss of some trees. The development project for what would eventually become the Scarborough RT technology was killed off before the test track could be built. Meanwhile, Queen’s Park had mused about using their technology on streets like Spadina, but were careful to provide illustrations showing the guideway from a distance in front of open space, not the massive infrastructure that would be needed at stations for tracks, platforms and vertical access. There was another problem: the province’s recommended design would have stations no closer than about 1 km apart, a huge difference from the bus service with many local stops.
The idea received approval in principle, but quickly ran aground for various reasons including the unsuitability of Clarence Square for the south end loop (SFTC had proposed looping at Adelaide via Charlotte and King with buses continuing to serve the then-industrial port area). The TTC wanted the streetcars to match the existing bus route which looped around the square. At the north end, a surface loop was not practical because of land constraints.
A decade later, the scheme resurfaced as part of the Harbourfront redevelopment, although only the Queens Quay service was built initially opening in 1990. This created the track connection from King to Queens Quay as well as a loop at the foot of Spadina that the original western end of the Harbourfront line. (Track was added on Queens Quay from Spadina to Bathurst in 2000.)
Further north, some merchants objected to the road changes a streetcar would bring including the reduction of parking (changing from angle to parallel parking), and the barrier effect of a streetcar right-of-way that would, it was claimed, prevent garment racks from being moved across the street between businesses. (This was a fictional recreation of New York’s garment district as the City demonstrated by conducting a survey to count this “traffic”. There was none.)
Thanks to the TTC’s presentation of the streetcar as a rapid transit line to the pending development south of King, there were fewer stops on their proposed route than were eventually built. (For the record, the SFTC proposal included all of the stops that were in the final version.) Combined with a curbed right-of-way, this was seen as a move creating a “Berlin Wall” down the middle of the street. As a result the original design had no curbs in some locations leading to many collisions with errant motorists, and the curbs appeared as a retrofit. Today, ironically, the streetcar right-of-way acts as a refuge for jaywalking across Spadina, a dubious and dangerous practice before the streetcar’s return.
This article is a photo gallery of the line’s construction. In a second installment, I will present a gallery of the line in operation.
In these photos, what is so striking is how little many parts of Spadina have changed and the low-rise street character is much the same today as it was in the 1990s, although change is spreading north from the condo district at King.
For more on the history of streetcars on Spadina, see Transit Toronto.
When the original track was laid for Spadina, the TTC had only recently adopted its “Retrac” design for surface tangent (straight) track. This was a huge improvement over previous installations including:
- A robust concrete base slab.
- Steel cross ties that would not rot and create voids within the concrete.
- Permanent attachment points in the ties for Pandrol clips in the top layer of the structure.
- A rubber sleeve around the rail to limit vibration of the pavement.
- Continuously welded rail without joints with the familiar (da-dum, da-dum) as each car passed and, thereby, without points of vibration that would prematurely shatter nearby concrete.
- A structure that allows rail replacement by removing only the top layer while the supporting layers remain in the street.
After over two decades, almost the entire TTC system now uses this type of track.
In the many views of intersections below, the track construction is the “old” way of doing things. Intersections were rebuilt a bit at a time, sometimes with service still operating through parts of them. Ties were laid out on the concrete slab, and the entire intersection was assembled piece-by-piece on site. There was no rubber sleeve around the track, and none of the special work castings were welded together.
It would be another decade before the TTC began building intersections as they do today with rubberized castings, and even longer before intersections would arrive in panels on trailers as they commonly do now. (See recent posts on the Dundas/Victoria and Dundas/Parliament intersections for views of current construction techniques.) The assembly used in the early 1990s caused intersections to fall apart prematurely, and required Spadina junctions to be rebuilt when it had seen only about 15 years of service.
The Spadina project was noteworthy on another account: in a short time the TTC created three “grand unions” at the intersections of King & Bathurst, King & Spadina and Queen & Spadina. These are rare junctions where every move is possible, and Toronto has three in walking distance of each other.
The Northern Terminal